General Knowledge about Osteoporosis

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Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease, particularly affecting the hips, spine, and wrists. The main causes are that bones break down too quickly or form too slowly. Typically, bones are at their strongest when a person is 30 years old, after which they gradually deteriorate.

Preventing osteoporosis includes eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, and engaging in weight-bearing exercises. Factors that contribute to increased bone loss include caffeinated beverages, high-sodium foods, and smoking.


Osteoporosis is a bone disease that is a major cause of fractures or spinal deformities in the elderly, particularly in women. This condition can significantly impact daily life. However, taking care of oneself along with medical supervision can help manage and reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis is a disease that makes bones porous and prone to fractures due to reduced bone mass and the loss of bone tissue. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and carries a significant risk of causing fractures, particularly in the hips, spine, or wrists.

The causes of osteoporosis

1. Insufficient calcium intake, especially during childhood and adolescence, when bones should be building their density the most.
2. Genetic predisposition: If family members such as grandparents, parents, or other relatives clearly exhibit symptoms of osteoporosis, the likelihood of grandchildren developing osteoporosis can be as high as 80%. The remaining 20% depends on dietary habits and exercise.
3. Regular smoking and alcohol consumption reduce the effectiveness of calcium absorption in the body, leading to accelerated bone loss and decreased bone density.
4. High consumption of coffee or caffeinated beverages like cocoa, tea, etc., increases the likelihood of bone thinning.
5. Decreased estrogen hormone levels, a natural condition in menopausal women, reduce calcium absorption efficiency in the body.
6. Low calcium intake during old age reduces calcium absorption in the body.
7. Lack of physical activity or exercise intensifies osteoporosis symptoms as one enters old age.
8. Certain medications such as cortisone, antiseizure medications, antacids, etc., reduce bone density, leading to osteoporosis.
9. Treatment involving radiation exposure or chemotherapy destroys bone cells, potentially leading to osteoporosis.
10. Vitamin D deficiency affects calcium absorption efficiency, especially when calcium intake is insufficient. Generally, households don’t face vitamin D deficiency issues because of year-round sunlight exposure.

Genetic predisposition to osteoporosis

Deficiency of estrogen hormone in postmenopausal women stimulates osteoclast cells to secrete enzymes that accelerate bone breakdown. This imbalance between bone formation and resorption reduces bone mass, leading to osteoporosis. Additionally, elderly individuals with decreased calcium intake and compromised vitamin D synthesis are also at risk. Vitamin D aids in calcium absorption; when dietary calcium is insufficient, the body resorts to extracting calcium from bones, further promoting bone loss, especially in the spine, wrists, and hips. This bone density reduction can lead to height loss in elderly individuals, as thinner bones cannot adequately support normal posture and are more susceptible to fractures, causing pain and reduced mobility.

Symptoms of osteoporosis

  • Reduced height
  • Hip or spine bones may fracture easily
  • Chronic bone pain
  • Kyphosis

Diagnosis of osteoporosis

Initially, the doctor will examine the patient’s history. If you have back pain due to subsidence of the spine Have a history of broken bones And there are various risk factors such as ovarian surgery and steroid use. or have a family history of osteoporosis Menstruation is over, smoking, eating a diet low in calcium. I don’t exercise much. There will be a high tendency to have osteoporosis. If you examine your body, you will find that your height has decreased. There is a deformity of the limb caused by a broken bone. If taking radiographs You will find a herniated disc and the spine has collapsed at both the top and bottom.

Bone mineral density test BMD) with Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone densitometry.

Treatment of osteoporosis

The doctor will give medicine to inhibit bone resorption. Bisphosphanate bone strengthening medicine Estrogen replacement hormone after menopause and pain relievers In addition, exercise Using a back brace and eating foods containing calcium It will help strengthen the symptoms as well.

Nursing Care and Prevention of Osteoporosis

1. Provide a firm mattress for resting.
2. Ensure proper sleeping posture with tall pillows supporting the neck and shoulders to align the spine.
3. Administer pain relief medication and osteoclast inhibitor drugs.
4. Apply heat therapy and gentle massage, turning the body with caution.
5. Recommend the use of high-seat armchairs.
6. Use a walker or cane for walking to prevent accidents.
7. Ensure a balanced diet with three meals a day, emphasizing foods rich in calcium and protein such as milk, meat, vegetables, and fruits.
8. Provide supplements of calcium and vitamin D.
9. Encourage exercise and weight reduction if overweight.
10. Quit smoking, limit caffeine intake, and abstain from alcohol as these can increase calcium loss.
11. Ensure exposure to sunlight for 30 minutes, 2-3 times a week in the morning.
12. Take precautions against falls to prevent severe injuries, including securing the home environment with grab bars, checking vision regularly, and monitoring the balance of elderly individuals.

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